News_2

News

Materials researcher fathoms growth of nanostructures on metal surface

Source: http://phys.org/ link

Materials researcher fathoms growth of nanostructures on metal surface

Growth of nanostructures on a copper surface at different temperatures and exposure times. Credit: Tanyeli et al. / Nature Scientific Reports

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-04-materials-fathoms-growth-nanostructures-metal.html#jCp

Materials scientist Irem Tanyeli from energy research institute DIFFER has discovered how you can grow nanostructures in a controlled manner on a variety of metals, by bombarding the metals with helium particles. Such controlled nanostructures provide the possibility of advanced electrodes that produce sustainable fuel using solar energy. Tanyeli and her fellow researchers from DIFFER, ITER and the University of Basel published their results in Nature’s Scientific Reports on 28 April 2015.

Blowing bubbles in metal

In their research Tanyeli and her colleagues exposed different metal surfaces to a hot intense beam of charged helium gas (plasma) in DIFFER’s plasma experiment Magnum-PSI. Helium easily penetrates into the metal lattice where it forms bubbles that push the surrounding metal outwards. In this way, different structures of tens to hundreds of nanometeres in size arise per metal. By describing the differences, Tanyeli could analyse which underlying processes formed the nanostructures such as the temperature and the structure of the metal lattice.

That helium plasma can cause a metal to explode in nanostructures had previously been discovered when researchers tested wall materials for fusion energy reactors. They then discovered strange shapes on the metal wall surface. In a fusion reactor, these nanostructures are undesirable because they reduce the discharge of heat, but in other applications the nanostructures are very useful, thinks co-researcher and DIFFER director Richard van de Sanden.

Fundamental insight

“Irem Tanyeli’s research is important due to the fundamental insight”, says Van de Sanden. “How do such nanostructures grow on a surface, which processes play a role in that, what are the bottlenecks, and how can you manage the process? If you understand that then you can produce advanced materials on a large-scale that can be given properties to order.” That has a wide range of applications in sustainable energy technologies.

Converting sunlight into hydrogen

Tanyeli’s nanostructures are interesting for catalyst applications such as the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen from water. Widely available and cheap materials can usually not compete against the efficiency of expensive but rare record holders such as platinum. But with the right nanostructures the cheaper materials can still be made competitive.

That opens up possibilities for the large-scale storage and conversion of sustainable energy in the form of chemical compounds: solar fuels. Such fuels have no net CO2-emission and, therefore, offer opportunities for the transport sector. Solar fuels are seen as an important way of storing sustainable energy, for example the solar energy that is generated during the sun-rich summer can be stored for use during the dark winter

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-04-inkjet-printed-liquid-metal-wearable-tech.html#jCp

Latest Papers

    • Ludmil Fachikov 
      Amorphous Phosphate Coatings on Steel Surfaces – preparation and characterization 
    • M. Hristova
      Prediction of the flash point of ternary ideal mixtures
    • Book Review by Alfons G. Buekens, Luc Hens
      Environmental Engineering: Principles and Practice 
      By Richard O. Mines, Jr.
  • Sturdy fabric-based piezoelectric energy harvester takes us one step closer to wearable electronics 17th September 2020
    KAIST researchers presented a highly flexible but sturdy wearable piezoelectric harvester using the simple and easy fabrication process of hot pressing and tape casting. This energy harvester, which has record high interfacial adhesion strength, will take us one step closer to being able to manufacture embedded wearable electronics. A research team led by Professor Seungbum […]
  • Size determines how nanoparticles affect biological membranes 17th September 2020
    Imperial researchers have tested whether gold nanoparticles could be toxic to cells, finding how they affect lipid membranes depends on their size.
  • E-beam atomic-scale 3-D 'sculpting' could enable new quantum nanodevices 17th September 2020
    By varying the energy and dose of tightly focused electron beams, researchers have demonstrated the ability to both etch away and deposit high-resolution nanoscale patterns on two-dimensional layers of graphene oxide. The 3-D additive/subtractive "sculpting" can be done without changing the chemistry of the electron beam deposition chamber, providing the foundation for building a new […]
  • Functional ion nanochannel-based approach to detect tyrosine phosphorylation 17th September 2020
    Tyrosine phosphorylation (pTyr) can initiate cellular signaling and govern cellular functions. Its dysregulation is implicated in many diseases, especially cancers. Specific detection of pTyr-is important for developing targeted anti-cancer drugs.
  • Floating graphene on a sheet of calcium atoms 17th September 2020
    Adding calcium to a composite graphene-substrate structure creates a high transition-temperature (Tc) superconductor.
  • Why do hospital germs bind more strongly to certain surfaces than to others? 16th September 2020
    Results from studies in both experimental and theoretical physics may help to improve antibacterial surfaces. The research work was recently published in the journal Nanoscale.
  • Anti-reflective coating inspired by fly eyes 16th September 2020
    The eyes of many insects, including the fruit fly, are covered by a thin, transparent coating made up of tiny protuberances with anti-reflective, anti-adhesive properties. An article published in the journal Nature reveals the secrets of how this nano-coating is made.
  • Novel photoresist enables 3-D printing of smallest porous structures 16th September 2020
    Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Heidelberg University have developed a photoresist for two-photon microprinting. It has now been used for the first time to produce three-dimensional polymer microstructures with cavities in the nano range. In Advanced Materials, the scientists report how porosity can be controlled during printing and how this affects light […]
  • Great progress for electronic gadgets of the future 16th September 2020
    Researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) have found a completely new method to check the electronic properties of oxide materials. This opens the door to even tinier components and perhaps more sustainable electronics.
  • Harnessing DNA molecules for disease detection and electronics 16th September 2020
    DNA molecules express heredity through genetic information. However, in the past few years, scientists have discovered that DNA can conduct electrical currents. This makes it an interesting candidate for roles that nature did not intend for this molecule, such as smaller, faster and cheaper electric circuits in electronic devices, and to detect the early stages […]